Modulators of Autophagy Signaling

Autophagy represents a homeostatic cellular mechanism for the turnover of organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. Misfolded or aggregated proteins are removed, damaged organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes are cleared and intracellular pathogens are eliminated. During starvation, autophagy facilitates cell survival through the recycling of metabolic precursors. There are three defined types of autophagy: macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy, all of which promote proteolytic degradation of cytosolic components at the lysosome. Macroautophagy delivers cytoplasmic cargo through the intermediary of a double membrane-bound vesicle, referred to as an autophagosome, that fuses with the lysosome to form an autophagolysosome (see Figure). The autophagosomal contents are degraded by lysosomal acid proteases. Amino acids and other small molecules that are generated by autophagic degradation are delivered back to the cytoplasm for recycling or energy production. Autophagy has been recognized as an essential function for cell homeostasis and adaptation to environmental stress conditions, including nutritional starvation, energy depletion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and hypoxia. Despite the widely accepted role for autophagy in cellular survival, it also has been associated with the regulation of various cell death pathways, including regulated (e.g. apoptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis) and catastrophic (e.g. necrosis) types of cell death. Furthermore it plays a vital role in innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Recent advances suggest that autophagy can dampen inflammatory responses, including inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation and maturation of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, autophagy might play a key role in preventing diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, liver disease, autoimmune diseases and infections. Strategies aiming to modulate autophagy, such as small molecule activators and inhibitors, might help to elucidate the biological processes behind.

Schematic overview on mammalian macroautophagy, including selected physiological and small molecule modulators

Cat. No.DescriptionAmountBrand
AG-CN2-0086Piceatannol [10083-24-6]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0033Resveratrol [501-36-0]50 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0032Sauchinone [177931-17-8]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0087Apicidin [183506-66-3]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0032MS-275 [209783-80-2]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0088Splitomicin [5690-03-9]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0108Trichostatin A [58880-19-6]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0011FK-866 [658084-64-1]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0064CHS-828 [200484-11-3]5 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0028SB202190 [152121-30-7]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0052Pifithrin-alpha (cyclic) . hydrobromide [511296-88-16]5 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-0004Pifithrin-alpha . hydrobromide [63208-82-2]5 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0432Eupatilin [22368-21-4]5 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0098Luteolin [491-70-3]5 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-35973-Methyladenine [5142-23-4]25 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-3516S14161 [883046-50-2]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0093Cytostatin [457070-06-3]250 ugAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0057Fostriecin [87860-39-7]10 ugAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0056Okadaic acid (high purity) [78111-17-8]25 ugAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0092Rubratoxin A [22467-31-8]250 ugAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0003Thapsigargin (high purity) [67526-95-8]1 mgAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CN2-0409Quercetin . dihydrate [6151-25-3]1 gAdipogen Life Sciences
AG-CR1-3575Suramin . hexasodium salt [129-46-4]50 mgAdipogen Life Sciences

Brochure: Modulators of Autophagy Signaling

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Brands: Adipogen Life Sciences
Product groups: Chemicals